Gyungsoo Woo, Jonghoon Kim, Youngyul You

Full professor of mathematics
Mathematics Department, Changwon National University
Changwon, Gyeungsangnam-Do, South Korea

Professor Hwang classified and explained threel different tyes of expansions in geometric tube designs, horizontal expansion, vertical expansion and skewed expansion. here tube means a hollow cylindrical shape which is made of elastic materials such as plastic for polyframe. We made a sphere shape with triple layers by using above three different expansions and connectors.

2015 VHS tube sphere
33 x 33 x 33 cm
plastic tube

In mathematics sphere and Platinic five solids ar important. Usually sphere shape can be made by using twelve regular pentagonal shapes and twenty regular hexagonal shapes with elasticity. We made a kind of sphere by using triple layers of different types of expansions. The most inner part is made by using vertical expansion, the middle part is made by horizontal expansion and the outer part is made of skewed expansion.

2015 HV three star shape tube sphere
29 x 29 x 29 cm
plastic tube

We made two layers of sphere shape. The inner part is made by using horizontal expansion, and the outer part is made by using three star shaped pentagons with vertical expansion.

2015 three star shape H tube sphere
31 x 31 x 31 cm
plastic tube

A sphere shape usually need twelve pentagon shape and twenty other shapes(triangle, hexagon or nonagon).

Here we made a sphere shape by using twelve three star shape pentagons and twenty nonagons in horizontal expansion tubes