# Vladimir Bulatov

3D graphics Researcher

Shapeways, Inc

Corvallis, Oregon, USA

My artistic passions are purely mathematical images and sculptures, which express a certain vision of forms and shapes: my interpretations of distance, transformations, and space. In my opinion, mathematics is a way of thinking, a way of life. My images and sculptures are like photographs of interesting mathematical ideas, which I discover and bring to the real world. I have always been intrigued by the possibility of showing the intrinsic richness of the mathematical world, whose charm and harmony can be appreciated by everyone.

Limit Set #170923

20 x 20 x 10 cm

3D print, white nylon

2017

Escher's "Circle Limit" woodcuts are based on symmetry groups generated by inversions in three circles. The limit sets of these groups are always contained in a round circle. Group generated by inversions in spheres can be much more complicated. Such a group, with only four generators, has a perhaps highly intricate limit set contained in a round sphere. However, as shown here, five or more generators can produce limit sets with truly three-dimensional structure. To calculate these limit sets we used a "reverse mapping", taking each point in space into a fundamental domain for the group. We use the inverse Jacobian to measure the distance to the limit set.

All modelling was done in ShapeJS and printed by Shapeways.

All modelling was done in ShapeJS and printed by Shapeways.

Limit Set #170922

20 x 20 x 20 cm

3D print, black nylon

2017

Limit set of a group generated by inversions in two orthogonal planes and three spheres arranged inside of the wedge formed by the planes.

Tetrahedral Limit Set

20 x 20 x 20 cm

3D print, red nylon

2014

Limit set of a group generated by inversions in eight spheres centered at the vertices of two concentric tetrahedra of different size. The limit set is a intricate composition of a simpler spherical limit sets of a pair of subgroups. Each subgroup is generated by inversions in four spheres centered on the vertices of one tetrahedron. This creates an interplay of structures with tetrahedral symmetry.

Limit Set #1

20 x 20 x 10 cm

3D print, orange nylon

2012

Limit set of a group generated by inversions in eight spheres centered at the vertices of a cube as well as a chain of four symmetrically placed intersecting spheres surrounding that cube. The limit set is intricate composition of simper limit sets of a pair of subgroups. These are given by two subsets of generators: the eight cube based generators and then the chain of four spheres.